There were many different philosophical views during the enlightenment; some of the more famous philosophers and their views include :

Descartes(1596-1650): A rationalist who came to the conclusion that humans must be living since we can think. He came to this conclusion with the famous quote "I think, therefore I am".

Aristotle (384-322 B.C.): Had a tripartite psyche, consisting of Reason, Appetite and Nutritive.

Aquinas(1225-1274): Was a believer in humans having free will and free choice, and was against the idea of determinism.

Plato: Wrote dialogues and used 'socrates' in his conversations. Socrates was a made up character who Plato often corrected. Plato also had a tripartite psyche and it consisted of two parts, Reason, Appetite, and Passion.

Augustine(354-411 B.C.): Believed that in the 'chain of being' humans and angels were capable of sin, where God, plants, rocks, and animals were not.

Kant: Was a believer that humans know right from wrong, but will choose wrong when they believe it will benefit themselves. He also believed that when man commits a wrong doing, he does so to better himself and not to harm others.

Rousseau: Is most famously known for his quote about the government control during the time; his quote being "Man is born free, but everywhere he is found in chains". Showing that we are born as free human beings, but then limited by the controls of the government.